Niger - a desert state on the Sahara
The landlocked state of Niger, located in the west of Central Africa, is more
than twice the size of France, and the state is inhabited by around 23.3
million people. Since the birth rate is over 7, the population is growing
Almost 90% of the national territory consists of desert.
The Niger extends far into the Sahara and includes large parts of the Sahel
zone, a 200-300 km wide landscape belt south of the Sahara, which the Arabs have
always called the Sahel (dt. Bank), because the caravans after the journey
through the desert met there for the first time on pasture grounds and watering
holes. Today's nomadic residents of the Sahel are dependent on annual
rainfall, and droughts such as the early 1970s led to catastrophic droughts that
deprived numerous people of livelihoods, causing famine and epidemics.
Many former nomads have now moved to the outskirts of the overpopulated cities,
to the south or to neighboring countries.
Due to its location between the northern Sahara states on the one hand and
West and Central African states on the other, Niger is home to various peoples,
from the light-skinned Tuareg and Fulani to darker peoples like the Hausa.
The area of the Sahel also forms a culturally bridge between the Arab-Muslim
sphere of influence and the black African cultures. For centuries there were
important trading centers in this region (e.g. Agadès), where handicrafts, salt,
gold, ivory and slaves were traded.
Industrialization is taking place slowly. Almost 90% of the workforce work in
agriculture. In the 1970s there was a certain economic upswing in Niger due to
uranium mining, until the world market price for uranium fell at the end of the
80s. However, uranium ore still accounts for 90% of total exports. The political
situation has become more stable after the violence-related unrest of the Tuareg
subsided in the 1990s, and a gradual process of democratization is taking place,
which began in 1991 with the adoption of a constitution with a multi-party
|Name of the country
||Republic of Niger
|Form of government
||in the west of central Africa
||23.3 million (Credit:
|Name of the residents
||around 53% Haussa, 21% Djerma-Songhay, 10% Fulbe,
10% Tuareg, 4% Kanouri,
Europeans, Arabs, Buduma, Moors
15% followers of natural religions
||French (official language)
Haussa, Djerma, Fulbe and Tamashek
||Niamey with 1.5 million residents
||Mount Bagzane with a height of 2,022 m
||Niger with a length of 4,181 km
||Lake Chad with an area of approx. 20,700 km²
|International license plate
|Time difference to CET
|International phone code
|Mains voltage, frequency
||220/380 volts and 50 hertz
|Internet TLD (Top Level Domain)
Until around the year 1000
The oldest evidence of settlement in the region is around 8,000 years
old. Other rock paintings from around 6000 BC BC come from an early cattle
breeding culture. Between 1500 BC The south of today's Niger belonged to the Nok
empire. The southwest was part of the Songhai Empire and the east of the Kanem
Bornu Empire. In the 10th century the Haussa city-states in the south of the
region became increasingly important.
From the year 1000 to the 19th century
Abbreviationfinder website, the Djerba began to immigrate to central Niger around 1600. The Europeans
Heinrich Barth, E. Vogel and Gustav Nachtigal discovered the country in the
second half of the 19th century.
In the 20th century
After the Second World War, the emancipation from the French colonial power
began. On August 3, 1960, Niger gained independence; Hamani Diori became the
first president. In 1967 uranium was discovered near Arlit. In 1969/70 a
year-long drought began, which peaked in 1974. In 1970 Lieutenant Colonel Seyni
Kountché came to power in a military coup, and the National Assembly and parties
Uranium prices continued to rise, with uranium mining in Niger reaching its peak
in 1981, when the country provided 12% of world production.
A Tuareg uprising sparked a two-year guerrilla war. 1984 followed another
drought. In 1985, twelve Tuareg were sentenced to death for an attack on a
government building. In 1987 OTL Ali Seybou came to power. The demonstrations
for democracy and a change of power from the beginning of 1990 were in some
cases bloodily suppressed. Another Tuareg rebellion began in the north of the
country. In 1991 a civil transitional government was formed under Prime Minister
Cheiffou, with party pluralism and democratic structures. In 1993 Mahamane
Ousmane was elected president. In 1995, thanks to international mediation, a
peace treaty was signed between the government and the rebel Tuareg. In 1996,
Colonel Baré seized power in a military coup.
Mamadou Tandja emerged victorious from the re-election in the same year and
initiated a return to democracy in the country. In 2004 he was re-elected.
In 2005, around 3.5 million people in Niger were affected by famine, caused
by persistent droughts and a plague of locusts in 2004.