Eritrea - a young state in Africa
The Border Commission in The Hague confirmed Eritrea's independence
from Ethiopia in 2003.
Ethiopia refuses to recognize this arbitral award to this day. This is all the
more sad as both countries have not only bled to death economically in the long
wars of independence.
The still smoldering border conflict of the Eritrean leadership also serves as a
justification for the fact that the constitution based on the western model has
not yet come into force.
During the almost 30 years of armed conflict, over 25,000 Eritreans found refuge
in Germany. This makes Germany the largest Eritrean exile in Europe.
|Name of the country
||State of Eritrea
|Form of government
||Northeast Africa on the Red Sea
||Ertra, Ertra, Ertra (Eritrea, Eritrea, Eritrea)
||approx. 9 million (Credit:
||approx. 48% Tigrinya, 35% Tigre and other peoples
||approx. 50% Christians and approx. 50% Muslims
||Arabic and Tigrinya are official languages
||Soira with a height of 3,018 m
||There are no major rivers in Eritrea.
||There are no larger lakes in Eritrea.
|International license plate
||1 nakfa = 100 cents
|Time difference to CET
|International phone code
|Mains voltage, frequency
||110/220 volts and 50 hertz
|Internet TLD (Top Level Domain)
Until the 19th century
From around 400 BC. BC began the conquest of what is now Eritrea and Ethiopia
by the Arab empire of the Sabeans. From the 2nd century AD Eritrea belonged to
the Ethiopian kingdom of Aksum. Coptic Christianity became the state religion in
the 4th century. After the kingdom successfully asserted itself against the
Arabs, it came under the supremacy of the likewise Christian Amharen. In the
16th century the Ottomans occupied the coastal area of Eritrea. In the
centuries that followed, Ethiopians, Turks and Egyptians fought over the
area. In the 19th century the country was conquered by the Italians and then
In the 20th century
Abbreviationfinder website, Great Britain took the country during World War II. Shortly thereafter,
however, it was placed in the custody of the United Nations. In the 1947
elections, the pro-independence parties won. However, in 1950 the UN demanded a
federation of Eritrea with Ethiopia, which was then enforced. In 1958 the ELM
(Eritrean Liberation Movement) was founded in Sudan. In 1960, the Islamic ELF
(Eritrean Liberation Front) was formed in Cairo. The armed struggle for
independence in Eritrea began in 1961 and led to the illegal annexation of the
country by Ethiopia in 1962. In 1970, after the ELM was broken up by the ELF,
the Eritrean People's Liberation Front (EPLF) came into being.
Even with Soviet and Israeli help, Ethiopia was unable to crush the liberation
movement. In 1991 Eritrea defeated the Ethiopian army. With the support of
Ethiopian rebels, it subsequently put pressure on the Ethiopian government. On
May 24, 1993, Eritrea's independence was proclaimed. Five years later, Ethiopia
declared war on the country over border conflicts. In December 2000, both sides
signed a peace plan. However, Ethiopia did not accept the award of the
Independent Boundary Commission in The Hague in October 2003. In 2006 the
simmering conflict threatened to escalate again when Ethiopia accused
neighboring Eritrea of supporting the "Union of Islamic Courts" in Somalia.
But now the relationship between the two countries has relaxed.