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Eritrea - a young state in Africa

The Border Commission in The Hague confirmed Eritrea's independence from Ethiopia in 2003.

Ethiopia refuses to recognize this arbitral award to this day. This is all the more sad as both countries have not only bled to death economically in the long wars of independence.

The still smoldering border conflict of the Eritrean leadership also serves as a justification for the fact that the constitution based on the western model has not yet come into force.


During the almost 30 years of armed conflict, over 25,000 Eritreans found refuge in Germany. This makes Germany the largest Eritrean exile in Europe.

Name of the country State of Eritrea
Form of government republic
Geographical location Northeast Africa on the Red Sea
National anthem Ertra, Ertra, Ertra (Eritrea, Eritrea, Eritrea)
Population approx. 9 million (Credit: Countryaah: Eritrea Population)
Ethnicities approx. 48% Tigrinya, 35% Tigre and other peoples
Religions approx. 50% Christians and approx. 50% Muslims
Languages Arabic and Tigrinya are official languages
Capital Asmara
Surface 121,144 km²
Highest mountain Soira with a height of 3,018 m
Longest river There are no major rivers in Eritrea.
Largest lake There are no larger lakes in Eritrea.
International license plate HE
National currency 1 nakfa = 100 cents
Time difference to CET + 2h
International phone code 00291
Mains voltage, frequency 110/220 volts and 50 hertz
Internet TLD (Top Level Domain) .he

Eritrea: history

Until the 19th century

From around 400 BC. BC began the conquest of what is now Eritrea and Ethiopia by the Arab empire of the Sabeans. From the 2nd century AD Eritrea belonged to the Ethiopian kingdom of Aksum. Coptic Christianity became the state religion in the 4th century. After the kingdom successfully asserted itself against the Arabs, it came under the supremacy of the likewise Christian Amharen. In the 16th century the Ottomans occupied the coastal area of Eritrea. In the centuries that followed, Ethiopians, Turks and Egyptians fought over the area. In the 19th century the country was conquered by the Italians and then colonized.

Eritrea: history

In the 20th century

According to Abbreviationfinder website, Great Britain took the country during World War II. Shortly thereafter, however, it was placed in the custody of the United Nations. In the 1947 elections, the pro-independence parties won. However, in 1950 the UN demanded a federation of Eritrea with Ethiopia, which was then enforced. In 1958 the ELM (Eritrean Liberation Movement) was founded in Sudan. In 1960, the Islamic ELF (Eritrean Liberation Front) was formed in Cairo. The armed struggle for independence in Eritrea began in 1961 and led to the illegal annexation of the country by Ethiopia in 1962. In 1970, after the ELM was broken up by the ELF, the Eritrean People's Liberation Front (EPLF) came into being.

Even with Soviet and Israeli help, Ethiopia was unable to crush the liberation movement. In 1991 Eritrea defeated the Ethiopian army. With the support of Ethiopian rebels, it subsequently put pressure on the Ethiopian government. On May 24, 1993, Eritrea's independence was proclaimed. Five years later, Ethiopia declared war on the country over border conflicts. In December 2000, both sides signed a peace plan. However, Ethiopia did not accept the award of the Independent Boundary Commission in The Hague in October 2003. In 2006 the simmering conflict threatened to escalate again when Ethiopia accused neighboring Eritrea of supporting the "Union of Islamic Courts" in Somalia.

But now the relationship between the two countries has relaxed.





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