Croatia - pearl on the Mediterranean
Today's Croatia was created in 1990.
After democratic elections, Croatia left the old federal state of Yugoslavia
and proclaimed its independence and sovereignty. At the same time,
a Belgrade- ordered uprising of part of the Serbian population took place. This
led to aggression on the part of the Yugoslav People's Army and on the part of
Yugoslavia against the Republic of Croatia.
On December 23, 1991, Germany recognized the Republic of Croatia as an
independent state. The remaining EU states joined a little later on January 15,
1992 and thus initiated the international recognition of the new state.
Together with Albania, the country became a member of the 28-member NATO on
April 1, 2009.
On July 1, 2013, Croatia became the 28th member of the European Union (EU).
|Name of the country
||Republika Hrvatska, Republic of Croatia
|Form of government
||Croatia stretches from the extreme eastern foothills of the Alps in
to far into the Pannonian Plain,
to the banks of the Danube in the east;
the central part is dominated by the Dinara massif
and the southern part ends on the coast of the Adriatic Sea.
||Lijepa naša domovina, our beautiful home
||June 25 - the day of the declaration of independence, 1991
||Declaration of independence on June 25, 1991
Recognition by Germany together with other EU states on December 23,
1991 - with effect from January 15, 1992
||about 4.4 million (Credit:
|NATO and EU membership
||since April 1, 2009 (NATO) or since July 1, 2013 (EU)
||90% Croatians; 4.5% Serbs; 5% others such as Bosniaks, Italians,
Hungarians, Albanians, Slovenes,
Czechs, Roma, Montenegrins, Slovaks, Macedonians
||88% Roman Catholic, 4% Serbian Orthodox, 1% Muslim
||Croatian, also Serbian, Italian and Hungarian
||Zagreb with approx. 790,000 residents is the economic,
cultural and academic center as well as the transport hub of the
||Croatian National Tourist Board in
60313 Frankfurt am Main
Tel: 0049 - (0) 69 - 2385350
E-mail: [email protected]
||The mainland area is 56,538 km² and the area of territorial waters
is 31,067 km²
||Dinara with a height of 1,831 m above sea level
||Save ("Sava") with a length of 945 km (562 km through Croatia)
||Vransko jezero with an area of approx. 30 km²
|International license plate
||Kuna (KN); 1 kuna = 100 lipa
|Time difference to CET
|International phone code
|Mains voltage, frequency
||230 V/50 Hz. (No socket adapter is required.)
|Top Level Domain (TLD)
|License plate of Croatia
Croatia is special not only because of its clean and blue sea. The different
cultures that have alternated in this area over the millennia also made the
country something special.
Abbreviationfinder website, the Adriatic Sea is not only a gulf with which the Mediterranean
has penetrated deep into the European mainland and thus created the most
economical transport route between Europe and the East, but it is also the
cradle of ancient civilization.
Numerous material evidence of this has been preserved, slowly emerging from the
depths of Adriatic caves and from the azure depths of the sea.
It was found that the eastern Adriatic coast was already populated at the
beginning of the Younger Stone Age. In addition, evidence was found that most of
the accessible islands were inhabited (e.g. from findings in caves on the island
of Hvar, on the island of Palagruza, etc.).
Thanks to the favorable geographical features of the coast, which is divided
by numerous large and small bays, this coastal strip has always been an
important trade and transport route.
Archaeological finds have established that the ancient Greeks lived in the
6th century BC. They maintained shipping traffic with the Illyrians and founded
their colonies here (e.g. Pharos - today's Starigrad on the island of Hvar, Issa
- today's Vis on the island of the same name.) Later came the Romans, who not
only built palaces and summer houses, but also sailed the seas intensely. There
are many submarine sites scattered across the seabed from Pula to Cavtat. Most
of them are finds of amphorae, which at that time represented the everyday
packaging in which everything was stowed: from wine to grain and fragrances. You
can dive in many places and come across the remains of ancient ships and their
Perhaps one of the most valuable finds from this period are the remains of
huge pottery ("pithos") that were built into the ships and were used to ship
bulk goods (grain and the like). One site is not far from Cavtat, another near
the island of Murter.
After the arrival of the Slavs in this area, a new period began, which was
characterized by constant struggles for supremacy and defense against various
enemies. Dubrovnik became a republic that set a good example in culture and
trade. A shipwreck from the 17th century bears witness to those times. It is a
galley that left Venice and loaded Murano glass, window glass and other valuable
items. She was also armed with cannons. The galley sank during a storm near the
island of Olipe, not far from Dubrovnik.
In the 18th century Napoleon came, who was replaced by Austria after a short
period of rule. In the course of the following centuries Austria and Italy
fought for supremacy on the east coast, culminating in the "Viska bitka", the
battle for Vis, in 1866. On the one hand was the Austrian fleet, led by
Tegetthoff, who was on the armored frigate "Archduke Ferdinand Max", and on the
other hand was Admiral Persano as the commander of the Italian fleet. In the
course of the battle Tegetthoff sank the ship of Persano, which was on the
ironclad Re d'Italia. After that, the Italians began to withdraw, admitting
The rule of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy followed. Ports and breakwaters
were built and reinforced, trade and shipbuilding flourished. During the two
world wars, the Adriatic was one of the more important battlefields, as
evidenced by a large number of wrecks. Around Pula, the then important naval
port, around 20 wrecks from that time have been found: submarines, destroyers
and torpedo boats. The Adriatic Sea has always been an important link between
the East and the West, which can be seen today in the remains that remind us not
to forget the past but to understand it as a lesson for the future.
Together with Albania, the country became a member of the 28-member NATO on
April 1, 2009.
In the runoff election on January 10, 2010, the social democrat Ivo Josipovic
became the new president of Croatia with 64.6% of the vote. His opponent, the
long-time mayor of Zagreb, Milan Bandic, received 35.3%.
Since July 1, 2013, Croatia has been the 28th member state of the European Union
The following are the most important historical data for the country in tabular
|Around AD 620
||Immigration of Croatians from the nor
|up to 925
||Under Byzantine and Frankish suzerainty
||Independent kingdom under King Tomislav
||Beginning of Hungarian, later Austro-Hungarian sovereignty; until
1918 all of Croatia belongs to the Habsburg monarchy.
|December 01, 1918
||Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes; Istria and Zadar come to
||Kingdom of Yugoslavia
||German troops march into Yugoslavia
||"Independent State of Croatia" as a Ustaše state under leader Ante
||Istria and some coastal areas are annexed by Italy
||Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia under Tito
||Break with Moscow
||"Croatian Spring": national-democratic mass movement led by
intellectuals and students together with the Croatian party leadership,
crackdown by the Yugoslav government
|April 8, 1990
||Tudjman becomes President of the Croatian Republic Presidium.
||HDZ wins the absolute majority in the first free parliamentary
||The "Serbian Republic of Krajina" declares itself independent.
||Declaration of Independence of Croatia
||Recognition by Germany together with other states of the European
Community - with effect from January 15, 1992
|from Sept. 91
||War in Croatia
|December 23, 1991
||Recognition by Germany and most other EU states with effect from
January 15, 1992
||Establishment of diplomatic relations by Germany
||Croatian recapture of the Serbian-controlled Krajina
||Agreement between Erdut and the authorities of the Serb-controlled
areas in Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Syrmia on reintegration
||Croatia is one of the signatories to the Dayton Agreement.
||Normalization Agreement between Croatia and the Federal Republic of
||Admission of Croatia to the Council of Europe
||Parliamentary election results in new government under
social-democratic leadership (6-party coalition)
|May 27, 2000
||Admission of Croatia to the "Partnership for Peace"
|October 29, 2001
||Signing of the Stability and Association Agreement with the EU
||Application to join the European Union
||The parliamentary elections lead to a new government under the
leadership of the HDZ.
||European Council awards Croatia candidate status
||The European Council names March 17, 2005 as the likely start of
accession negotiations with Croatia.
||Member of NATO, which now comprises 28 member countries
||Member of the EU, which now comprises 28 member countries