Chad - The great country in Central Africa
Chad is almost four times the size of Germany and is located in the heart
of Africa. In spite of this, the world public has not yet heard much from this
large and centrally located state. Presumably because there was no such bloody
tension or civil war as it would have been media effective.
Nevertheless: since independence from France in 1960 there have been repeated
unrest; There were disputes above all between the Muslim nomads in the north,
who had been dominant in the country in the pre-colonial period, and the
residents of the south, Christianized by the Europeans, from whom an elite
emerged, among other things through the education system introduced during the
colonial period also the first president of Chad came from.
The economy is mainly shaped by agriculture; mineral raw materials are not
available or not developed. Even after the autonomy, the country remained in
neo-colonial dependency, which hindered its independent economic
development. Droughts and civil war did the rest to make Chad a desperately poor
Chad is also home to the highest mountains in the entire Sahara: the Tibesti,
a rugged volcanic landscape. Trade winds have formed rock towers and gates on
the sandstone layers. But too much stands in the way of tourist awareness of
this great mountain range, not least the cartographically unrecorded minefields
in the Tibesti area on the Libyan border.
|Name of the country
||Republic of Chad
|Form of government
||August 11 (independence August 11, 1960)
||approx. 16.5 million (Credit:
||approx. 200 ethnic groups, including Sara, Chad groups, Arabs
||approx. 56% Muslims, 22% Christians (mostly Catholics) and 22%
||French, Arabic and around 50 regional languages
||N'Djamena with about 1.5 million residents
||Emi Koussi with a height of 3,415 m
||Chari with a length of 1,200 km
|International license plate
|Time difference to CET
|International phone code
|Mains voltage, frequency
||220/380 volts and 50 hertz
|Internet TDL (Top Level Domain)
Chad by the 19th century
The oldest finds so far of presumed transitional forms between primates and
humans come from Chad. It is about 3.5 million (Abel) and 7 million (Toumai)
year old skull parts. A first demonstrable settlement in the area took place as
early as the 6th millennium BC. Later on, Islamic states developed on Lake Chad
as well as Baguirmi, the Logone city-states and the Ouaddaï sultanate. In the
19th century, European explorers began to penetrate the area.
20th century until today
Abbreviationfinder website, France occupied Chad around 1900 and incorporated it into French Equatorial
Africa in 1908. Between 1909 and 1913 there was bloody fighting between the
occupiers and the local population. In 1934 there were first border disputes
with the Italian colonial power, which had conquered the northern neighboring
country Libya. Independence of the country was proclaimed on August 11, 1960.
The first president was Francois Tombalbaye, who came from the south. In the
period that followed, there were increasing conflicts between the Islamic Arab
and Berber tribes of the north and the Christian or animist black African
population of the south.
After the establishment of the Muslim FROLINAT (Front de Liberation
Nationale) in 1966, a civil war broke out. While France was on the side of the
government, FROLINAT received support from Libya, Algeria and Sudan.
Libya occupied the Aouzou Strip in 1973. General Malloum came to power in
1975 after a coup. In 1978 there was another military intervention by France. In
1979, after the conquest of N'Djamena, the "Gouvernement d'Union Nationale de
Transition" ruled Chad under Weddeye. After the "Second Battle for N'Djamena"
Libya intervened in the conflict, but was pushed back by France. With Egyptian,
Sudanese and US support, Habré held his ground, conquering N'Djamena in 1982 and
establishing the so-called Second Republic. Serious human rights violations
occurred in Chad during his dictatorship.
In 1983 the country was divided into two parts along the 16th parallel
because the north was occupied by the Libyan military. However, through an
offensive by the Chadian government troops in 1986/87 and the French military
operation Epervier, Gaddafi was pushed back to the Aouzou strip.
In 1989 the peace treaty of Algiers was signed. In 1990 Habré fell under the
opposition leader Déby. A transitional government was created at the 1993
National Conference. In 1994 the International Court of Justice awarded the
Aouzou strip to Chad again.
After a failed attempt in 1995, presidential elections were held in 1996,
from which Déby emerged victorious, and parliamentary elections in 1997.
At the end of 1998 the armed Tibesti conflict between rebels under Youssouf
Togoimi and government troops began. In December 2001 both parties signed a
peace agreement. In 2002 President Déby was re-elected. In 2003 the development
of the Doba oil fields began. In November 2003, the government executed nine
people sentenced to death. In May 2004 there was an attempted coup. In the same
month, a parliamentary vote was held on a constitutional amendment.
As a result of the civil war and prolonged periods of drought, Chad is one of
the poorest countries on earth. The population is still dependent on
international aid. The country has a particularly high infant and child
mortality rate. Due to the lack of medical supplies, thousands of people die of
epidemics every year. The refugees from the Darfur region in Sudan represent an
In early 2008, fighting between government troops and rebels even flared up
in the capital. The fighting was so intense that almost all foreigners had to be
evacuated. The rebels were and still are at odds with one another, and there are
also numerous fighters from Sudan.