Iran - One of the culturally richest countries
Iran is one of the culturally richest countries on earth. Already 5,000 years
ago Zarathustra was walking on his territory, various peoples fought for
supremacy: from the Sassanids to the Mongols to the Qajars, who were eventually
driven out by the Shah. And all of them left their cultural and architectural
traces, which can still be seen today and which, in addition to the natural
beauties, make the country so attractive. For example, the city of Isfahan is a
UNESCO World Heritage Site and its blue mosque is one of the most beautiful
Persia and Iran were repeatedly a topic in politics and the media and in all
epochs it had an influence on world politics
In all political and diplomatic considerations, it must never be overlooked that
Iran has the third largest oil reserves and the second largest gas reserves in
|Name of the country
||Islamic Republic of Iran
|Form of government
||Country in the middle east
|Head of state
||Revolutionary leader and chief legal scholar since June 4, 1989:
Seyyed Ali Chamenei
||Sorood-e Jomhoori-e Eslami
||approximately 75.1 million (Credit:
||Persians, Azerbaijanis, Kurds, Arabs, Gilake, Mazandarani, Arabs,
Turkomans, Baluch, Christian Armenians, Assyrians, Georgians and others
||Shiite Islam (insignificant
minorities: Christianity, Zoroastrians, Baha'i and Jews)
||Persian (Farsi), Azerbaijani, Turkmen, Kurdish, Lurian, Baluchi,
Armenian and Arabic and other minority languages.
||Tehran with approx. 8.8 million residents
||Rial (1 rial = 100 dinars)
||Damâvand volcanic cone in the Elbursgebirge with an altitude of
||Karun with a length of 850 km
||Orúmíyeh, depending on the water level, 4,500 km² to 6,000 km²
|Time difference to CET
||+ 2.5 h
|International phone code
|Internet TLD (Top Level Domain)
|License plate of Iran
Until around the year 1000
The present-day area of Iran was already settled during the Neolithic
Age. The Neolithic lasted in Central Europe from about 5600 to about 2200 BC. In
the 4th century BC The Indo-Europeans, also known as Aryans, came to Iran. Until
the 2nd century BC In BC Iran was populated by different tribes who practiced
agriculture and already had town-like settlements.
Abbreviationfinder website, during 728-550 BC, the empire of the Medes lasted. During this time the Persians also
came to Iran as vassals of the Medes. 612 BC The Assyrian Empire was destroyed
by the alliance between Babylon and the Medes. 550 BC The Persian king Cyrus II
the Great overthrew the kingdom of the Medes and thus ended their rule. Cyrus
came from the Persian family of the Archaimenids. 546 BC Cyrus triumphed over
the Lydians and conquered in 539 BC. BC Babylon. Now he was able to found the
Persian world empire, which lasted until 331 BC. Lasted. Cyrus' son, Cambyses,
subjugated Egypt, Tire, and Cyprus.
The Zoroastrianism was the dominant religion in Persia
before the Arabs brought Islam to the country. The religion goes back to the
prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra), whose teaching was centered on
the idea of an omnipotent and invisible God. The basic idea is dualism, i.e.
the eternal battle between good and bad, between good thoughts (Vohu Mano) and
bad ones (Ahem Nano). These are responsible for day and night, i.e. life and
death. Both opposites are contained in the highest being, the Ahura
Mazda, as well as in all living things.
Dareios, the successor of Cambyses, subjugated Thrace and started the Persian
Wars (500 - 449/448 BC) against the Greek states with his son Xerxes. 333 BC BC
took place at Issus, in which Alexander the Great fought against the
Persians. 331 BC In BC Alexander the Great finally defeated the Persian
Empire. 323-240 BC Chr.: Persia was part of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire.
Middle of the 3rd century BC A horsemen conquered the Seleucid Empire and
established the Parthian Empire. In its heyday it extended from the Euphrates to
the Indus and lasted until 224 AD. In 224 AD, the Persians rose against the
Parthians. Under Ardaschir I. they founded the empire of the Sassanids. In 642
the Sassanid Empire ended in the battle of Nehawend. The Muslim Arabs conquered
the empire. The country was Islamized under the rule of the Umayyad Caliphate.
750 - 1258: Iran was under the Abbasid caliphate from Baghdad. During this
time various small local dynasties emerged, such as the Tahirids, Samanids,
Bujids, Ghasnavids and others.
From the year 1000 to the 17th century
1038 - 1186: the Sedschuks of Turkish descent invaded Persia and conquered
almost the entire area.
1220: The Mongols under Genghis Khan invaded Persia and brought it under their
rule after a second onslaught under Hülägü. Now the Mongolian Ilkhans ruled
1380 until the beginning of the 16th century: rule of the Timurid dynasty
Ismail I founded the Safavid dynasty in 1501. The country was nationally,
religiously and politically unified. The Shia (Shiite Islam) became the state
religion. The Safavid Empire had its climax between 1588 and 1629 under Shah
Abbas I the Great. Under him, the capital was moved to Isfahan in 1598.
In the 18th and 19th centuries
1722: End of the Safavid rule. 1722 - 1736: Afghan dynasty, the country was
divided into different areas. 1736 - 1752: rule of the Afsharids. It was not
until 1794 that the country was reunited under the Turkmen Qajars. Tehran became
the capital. The part of the country that forms today's Georgia was lost to
20th century until today
In 1925 Resa Shah (1878-1944) drove out the Qajar dynasty and took over the
reign and power in the country.
After the death of the Shah in 1944, his son Mohammed Resa Pahlewi (1919-1980)
took over the throne and thus power in the country. Despite a lavish and lavish
lifestyle and an authoritarian regime based on military and intelligence
agencies, he attempted numerous reforms to bring the country up to Western
standards. The emancipation of women also made progress under his reign. A high
point of his reign were the sumptuous celebrations in the presence of numerous
guests from politics, business and culture to commemorate 2,500 years of the
Persian monarchy. The Shah's visit in 1968 led to serious riots in Berlin and
other cities, during the course of which on June 2, 1968 the student Benno
Ohnesorg (1940 to June 2, 1967) was shot by the Berlin police officer Karl-Heinz
The power of the Shah collapsed with the arrival of longtime oppositionist
Khomeini from exile in Paris. The Shah fled into exile and on April 1st 1979
Khomeini proclaimed the "Islamic Republic of Iran".
In 1980, Saddam Hussein's Iraq attacked Iran. The war with around 1 million dead
did not end until 1988.
On June 4th, 1989 Khomeini died and Ayatollah Khamenei became his successor as
"Leader of the Islamic Republic". He was re-elected to office in 2001. 2003:
Iran agreed to cooperate with the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency),
thereby renouncing a nuclear weapons program. November 15th, 2004 the "Paris
Agreement" between Germany, France and Iran came into being, in which long-term
cooperation on issues relating to the Iranian nuclear program was initiated.
In 2004 Iran celebrated its 25th anniversary as an Islamic State of God.
In August 2005 Mahmud Ahmadinejad (born 1956) was elected 6th President of Iran
directly by the people. In 2006, Iran came under increased international
pressure because of its changed nuclear policy. It is feared that the resumption
of uranium enrichment, for example, could also serve to build an A-bomb.
On June 12, 2009, Ahmadinejad was re-elected president with 63% of the vote,
according to official figures.
The supporters of the defeated candidate Hossein Mousavi took to the streets
on June 13, especially in Tehran, to protest against the presumed election
campaign. There was great hope that the highest religious leader Chatemie would
appear at the Friday prayer on June 19th. But Chatemie dashed all hopes that the
regime would give in. Hundreds of thousands of people took to the streets
promptly on the following Saturday and were beaten up and sometimes also shot